Diverse Settings, Questions and Approaches
Edited by Karen D. Hughes and Jennifer E. Jennings
Chapter 3: Academic Women’s Entrepreneurship in Spain and Scotland: A Multilevel Institutional Approach
3. Academic women’s entrepreneurship in Spain and Scotland: a multilevel institutional approach M. Mar Fuentes-Fuentes, Sarah Y. Cooper and Ana M. Bojica* INTRODUCTION Despite the increasing research on female entrepreneurs, a more substantial comprehension of women’s entrepreneurship in specific environments such as universities is still needed. In today’s knowledge-based economy, universities and research institutes are seen as important actors in regional growth. Academic entrepreneurship, which involves the creation of new spin-off ventures to commercialize the results of academic research, has become an important objective for many universities (Wright et al., 2007). University spin-offs are a significant class of firms because they represent an economically powerful subset of high-technology start-ups (Shane, 2004). Several studies have shown that although the number of women academics has significantly grown in recent decades, their involvement in the creation of spin-offs seems to be quite limited (Alcalá et al., 2007; Landry et al., 2006; Lowe and González-Brambila, 2007; Murray and Graham, 2007; Rosa and Dawson, 2006). Previous studies that explore the extent to which women are represented in the commercialization of science through disclosures and patents, as well as research into factors that influence the initialization of university start-ups, highlight three main inhibiting factors. First, structural factors, such as a lower presence of women academics in scientific areas closer to applied research (Bunker-Whittington and Smith-Doerr, 2005) and apparent barriers to the advancement of women into senior positions, have an impact (Bailyn, 2003; Rosser and Lane, 2002). Second, there are factors related to accessing resources, including...
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