Handbook of Qualitative Research in Education
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Handbook of Qualitative Research in Education

Edited by Sara Delamont

The Handbook of Qualitative Research in Education offers both basic and advanced discussions of data collection, analysis and representation of all the best qualitative methods used in educational research.
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Chapter 14: Apprenticeship: Toward a Reflexive Method for Researching ‘Education in “Non-formal” Settings’

Wolff-Michael Roth


Wolff-Michael Roth ed•u•ca•tion – n. 1. The act or process of education or being educated. 2. The knowledge or skill obtained or developed by such a process: learning. 3. The field of study concerned with teaching and learning pedagogy. (Webster’s II, 1984, p. 418) Everything that is internal in higher functions was necessarily once external: i.e., it was for others what today it is for itself . . . before becoming a function, it was the social relation between two people. (Vygotsky, 1989, p. 56) INTRODUCTION In the first introductory quote, the dictionary defines (a) active (teaching) and active/passive (being taught/learning) dimensions of education, (b) the content result from the process (that is, knowledge, skill), and (c) the field of study concerned with the items (a) and (b). The noun term is generally associated with events and products that occur in special institutional settings in which these societal practices occur. Although implied in all three dictionary senses, education as process and as product from other institutional settings and societally motivated activities – for example, workplace, playground, or leisure time – are less frequently associated with the term. How might we investigate education in such settings and activities? The answer to this question depends on how we think of education (knowledge, skill). As a product (knowledge, skill), education is often treated as something to be found in and to be searched for in the minds of the individuals and population of interest – an attitude, as Mills (Chapter 3, this volume) suggests, perhaps more typical...

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