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Code Wars 10 Years of P2P Software Litigation

10 Years of P2P Software Litigation

Rebecca Giblin

With reference to US, UK, Canadian and Australian secondary liability regimes, this insightful book develops a compelling new theory to explain why a decade of ostensibly successful litigation failed to reduce the number, variety or availability of P2P file sharing applications – and highlights ways the law might need to change if it is to have any meaningful effect in future.
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Index

Rebecca Giblin

Aimster litigation 4857, 77
Aimster defendants 4852, 57
contributory liability and 4951, 537
knowledge element 4950
material contribution 49, 5051
vicarious liability and 513, 57
Seventh Circuit and 527, 68, 71, 97, 137, 172
Aimster technology 46, 478, 125, 144, 146
encryption strategy 4950, 51, 55
AltNet Ltd 127, 128, 130, 134
TopSearch software 130, 135
America Online (AOL) 58
American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (ASCAP) 2122, 26
Amstrad action 107109
authorization 105106
Australia 114126, 1536, 1645
breadth of doctrine 115119
role of knowledge and 117118
control and 119124, 132, 1389, 141
obligation to prevent infringement and 1245
partial codification of 115, 121, 125, 132
post-Sharman 1369
“sanctions, approves or countenances” and 116
temporality and control and 124
Sharman decision and 13135, 144
Canada 110114, 119
emphasis on control and 110114
post-CCH 113
“sanctions, approves or countenances” and 110, 118119
United Kingdom 106110, 19
Amstrad action 107109
CBS action 107109
post-Amstrad 109
“sanctions, approves or countenances” and 106107, 108, 109, 118119
Bermeister, Kevin 127, 134
Betamax 312, 36, 44, 46, 48, 55, 56, 72, 76, 77, 789, 97, 166, 1689, 173
defense see Sony defense
BitTorrent Inc 147, 148, 1535, 178
absence of litigation against 1569
BitTorrent protocol 140141, 143, 145, 147, 169, 177, 180
non-infringing uses and 1512
process of 148150
Distributed Hash Tables (DHT) 149
Peer Exchange (PEX) 149150
“rarest first” and 150
torrent files 148, 149, 1614
provider liability
under Australian and US law, predictions of 147, 1506
contributory and vicarious liability and 1513
inducement and authorization and 1536
trackers and hosts and 15961
BREIN 160
Brilliant Digital Entertainment Inc 127, 134
CBS action 107109
Clarke, Ian 110
Cohen, Bram 140, 145, 147, 150, 154, 1589, 164, 1778
Columbia Artists Management Inc (CAMI) 2627
control centralization, liability-attracting, elimination of 4, 589, 64, 69, 82, 113, 119120, 1256, 128, 139, 1523, 159
copyright law
authorization and see authorization
enforcement of
gatekeepers and 3, 5, 9, 11, 142, 157 159
notice and takedown regime 1314
fair use and 31, 323, 35
“space-shifting” and 36
“time-shifting” and 36, 37, 76, 77, 799, 168
inducement and, 74, 75, 837, 89, 99102, 136, 137, 140, 144, 1536, 165
infringement of see infringement
reasonable alternative design framework and see reasonable alternative design standard
safe harbor provisions and 13, 3031, 135, 161
secondary liability and see secondary liability
copyright owners see rights owners
copyright rights holders see rights owners
Deep, John 478, 49, 523, 556, 57, 58
EliteTorrents 160
end users
Aimster technology, process of using and 478
FastTrack protocol, process of using and 62
Gnutella protocol, process of using and 5960
Grokster litigation and 69
KMD, Sharman and 1323
Napster technology, process of using and 1516
perception of threat of litigation campaign and 3
Fanning, Shawn 1, 14, 45, 46
FastTrack Network 614, 68, 88, 106, 109, 128, 131, 136, 146, 158
FastTrack protocol 58, 64, 67, 80, 86, 104, 113, 127, 128, 130, 149, 157, 158
Felten, Edward 143, 144
file sharers see end users
file sharing software see P2P file sharing software
Frankel, Justin 589
Friis, Janus 61, 80
FurthurNet 154
Google 89, 99, 148, 163, 1723
Gorton, Mark 88
Gnutella protocol 58, 88, 93, 95, 96, 102, 113, 143, 1467, 149, 151, 169
absence of centralized points and 59
problems with continued development of 61
Grokster Ltd 62, 85, 88, 157
Grokster litigation 110
District Court and 645
contributory liability and 656
knowledge element and 65
vicarious liability and 668
Ninth Circuit and 6871, 94, 95, 967, 98, 137, 152
contributory liability and 6870
vicarious liability and 7071
“right and ability to supervise” and 70
Supreme Court and
Breyer Concurrence 778, 79, 989
Court understanding of 746
inducement and 837, 137, 140, 144
Ginsberg Concurrence 767, 92, 95, 99, 100
implications of conflicting concurrences 7881
inducement and 837, 137, 140, 144
vicarious liability and 812
Grokster technology 4, 46, 5764, 76, 82, 94, 95, 144, 146, 153
FastTrack and 58, 612, 80, 88
Hemming, Nicola 127, 134
Hulu 182
infringement
“authorizing” of see authorization
direct 3, 18, 35
home recording and 323
liability for “inducing” 29
mass-scale 10
secondary liability for see secondary liability
third party 4, 18, 25, 29, 136
control and 25
knowledge and 29
internet service providers (ISPs)
Australia, code of conduct and 1645
Canada, disclosure of individual details and 113
IP addresses and 16
see also P2P providers
Internet Underground Music Archive (IUMA) 11
Isohunt 160, 161
Joltid Ltd 1278
Kazaa BV 62, 104, 127
Kazaa litigation
Australia 114, 119, 125, 126139
Canada 110, 113, 125
Netherlands 102
Kazaa technology 2, 113, 128131, 135, 144, 146, 151, 164, 169, 175
FastTrack and 80, 128, 130
Kazaa Media Desktop (KMD) client 612, 12831, 135
Sharman decision as death knell for 136
LEF Interactive 105, 127, 134
liability
contributory see secondary liability
enterprise 18, 42
joint tortfeasor 26
secondary see secondary liability
vicarious see secondary liability
Lime Group litigation 91, 140
contributory liability and 946, 99
inducement and 924
vicarious liability and 967
LimeWire technology 88, 935, 163, 164
Morpheus litigation 58
knowledge element and 65
Supreme Court and 76
Morpheus technology 5, 46, 5764, 82, 88, 94, 95, 96, 144, 146, 153
see also Gnutella protocol; StreamCast Networks
Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) 33, 160, 161
MP3 technology 12
multiple site distribution and 1314
Winamp 58
Napster Inc litigation
appeal to Ninth Circuit 39
application of pre-P2P law to 35, 389
application of Sony defense to 357, 4042
contributory liability and 389, 4041, 44
injunctions 39, 423
physical world/software world divide and 445
roadmap for avoiding liability and 445
right and ability to supervise users and 378, 42
vicarious liability and 38, 412, 44, 82
Napster technology 59, 61, 144, 146, 149, 151
creation of 1, 14, 143
process of 1517
“space-shifting” and 356
Netflix 182
non-infringing uses 136
Aimster litigation and 49, 50, 534, 56, 72
BitTorrent and 1512
commercially significant, 68, 76, 789
Grokster litigation and 689, 756
Ginsberg Concurrence and 81
knowledge of third party infringements and 41, 48, 65
Lime Group litigation and 99
measurement of, risk to new technologies and 80
Napster litigation and 3334, 367, 40
patent law and 32
products liability law and 167
OiNK 160
online music, evolution of 1117
Open Source Initiative 146
P2P file sharing technology, 76, 80, 165
Aimster see Aimster technology
anti-regulatory code effect and 45
Ants P2P 145
BitTorrent protocol see BitTorrent protocol
development of after cessation of litigation 140, 141, 147
dual-use 77, 79, 98
ease of development of 143
FastTrack protocol 58, 64, 67, 80, 86, 104, 113, 127
filtering technology 43, 83, 86, 94, 97, 100, 132, 1356, 137, 154, 155, 156, 157, 172, 177, 180
Freenet 110
Gnutella see Gnutella protocol
Grokster see Grokster technology
Gtk-Gnutella 145
iMesh 113
Kazaa see Kazaa technology
LimeWire technology 88, 935, 163, 164
Morpheus see Morpheus technology
MUTE 145
Napster see Napster technology
role of individual user and 5
use of 2, 3
P2P litigation
abandonment of 139, 140, 1412
absence of against BitTorrent technology 1569
Aimster see Aimster litigation
consequences of, serious and
unintended 1645
direct, failure of 3
Grokster see Grokster litigation
Kazaa see Kazaa litigation
Lime Group and see Lime Group litigation
Morpheus see Morpheus litigation
Napster Inc see Napster Inc Litigation
Streamcast 857
P2P providers
exploitation of physical world/ software world divide 45, 71
“materially contribute” to infringement and 29
minimization of possible infringing use and 137
post-Grokster reactions 88
secondary liability and see secondary liability
see also internet service providers
P2P software developers 8, 76
actual knowledge of end-user infringement and 41, 45, 48
anti-regulatory code effect and 4, 46
control centralization, elimination of 4, 589, 64, 69, 82, 113, 119120, 1256, 128, 139, 1523, 159
manner of 84, 125
profit and 144
secondary liability and see secondary liability
patent law 166
contributory liability and 9091
inducement and 83, 90
staple item of commerce
doctrine and 315
peer-to-peer see P2P
Pepper, Tom 589
physical world, assumptions of
contributory liability and 30
expense of product development and distribution 910, 142, 156
inherent nature of 79, 141, 142
profit as goal of distribution technologies 10, 142
profit-making as basis for liability 144
third party involvement and control and 71, 141
vicarious liability and 2526
physical world/software world divide 6, 46, 139, 141, 165, 183
Aimster litigation and 52, 723
Aimster technology and 48
Gnutella and FastTrack and 64
Grokster litigation and 6970, 712, 82, 106
Napster Inc litigation and 445
Piratbyrån 161, 162
Pirate Bay 148, 149150, 1613
Podtropolis 160
product liability law 1667
reasonable alternative design standard 1668
modified reasonable alternative design standard and 1735
application of 1756
as workable option 1769
shortcomings of 17981
physical world assumptions of 16871
software world realities and 1713
Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) 17, 38, 49
initial response to online music downloading 13
lawsuits against individuals 23
takedown notices and 1314
rights owners 105
barriers to market entry, enforcement methods and 910
consequences of litigation and 1645
“dance hall’ cases and 19, 2021, 22
early issue of takedown notices 13
evidence of bad intent and 136, 140
gatekeeper enforcement and 34
harm minimization strategy and 182
landlord and tenant cases 1922
no evidence of bad intent and 1367, 140
objections to P2P technology 2, 63
torrent files and 161
“sanctions, approves or countenances”
Australian law and 116
Canadian law and 110
UK law and 106107, 108, 109
secondary liability 4, 10, 124
Australian copyright law and 114, 131, 137
Napster Inc litigation and
contributory liability 389, 4041, 48
vicarious liability 38, 412, 48
physical world assumptions and 89
possible reformulation of see secondary liability, reformulated
US post-Grokster see US post-Grokster secondary liability
US post-Napster see US post-Napster secondary liability
US pre-P2P see US pre-P2P secondary liability
secondary liability, reformulated
reasonable alternative design standard and 1668
modified reasonable alternative design standard and 1735
application of 1756
as workable option 1769
shortcomings of 17981
physical world assumptions of 16871
software world realities and 1713
Sharman Networks 88, 105, 127, 128
as operator of Kazaa system 131
liability and injunction and 1345
power to prevent infringement 132
reasonable steps to prevent infringement and 1334
relationship with Kazaa users 1323
safe harbor and 135
Skype 8081
software
application of physical world rules to 78
code 7, 8
closed source 146
open source 146
definition of 7
encryption 4, 9
software world, realities of
low cost of creation of technology 142143
profit motivation of developers 1435
sharing of source code for product improvement 1457
Sony defense 315, 36, 40, 152, 168, 174, 179
Aimster litigation and 4950, 53, 73, 125
contributory liability and 4041, 71, 75, 81
Grokster litigation, District Court and 645, 68
Grokster litigation, Supreme Court and, 97
Breyer Concurrence 778, 79, 989
Court understanding of 746
Ginsberg Concurrence 767, 92, 95, 99, 100
implications of conflicting concurrences 7881
vicarious liability and 812
Napster litigation and 357, 4042
no equivalent in Australia 1367
P2P litigation and 37
post-Grokster interpretation of 98, 99, 100101
SourceForge 140, 143, 1445, 146, 158
staple article of commerce defense see Sony defense
StreamCast litigation, inducement and 857
StreamCast Networks 62, 64, 657, 76, 80, 84, 93, 104, 110, 157
see also Gnutella protocol; Morpheus technology
SuprNova.org 160
Torrentbox 160
UltraViolet digital rights ecosystem 182
US post-Grokster secondary liability
contributory liability and 8991, 989, 137
inducement liability and 99102, 180
lack of clarity in 978
Lime Group and 917, 99
three forms of secondary infringement and 91
vicarious liability and 102103
US post-Napster secondary liability 128
Aimster litigation and 4857
contributory liability and 4951, 537
knowledge element 4950
material contribution 49, 5051
vicarious liability and 513, 57
Grokster litigation and 58, 746
contributory liability and 656, 6870
knowledge element and 65
inducement and 837
vicarious liability and 668, 7071, 812
Morpheus litigation and 58
knowledge element and 65
US pre-P2P secondary liability
contributory infringement and 18, 2630
control and 25, 30
fault and 26
Gershwin formulation and 27
knowledge and 2729, 31, 32, 33
liability for “inducing” 29
“materially contribute” and 2930, 32
defenses to 3035
safe harbor provisions 13, 3031
Sony defense 315
uncertainties of 36, 40
physical world assumptions of 6
vicarious infringement and 1826, 30, 31, 143
expansive approach to 2225
HL Green formulation and 2122
physical world assumptions of 2526
Zennström, Niklas 61, 80