- European Research in Entrepreneurship series
Edited by Alain Fayolle and Kiril Todorov
Chapter 4: Understanding the Impact of Culture on a Firm’s Entrepreneurial Orientation and Behaviour: A Conceptual Framework
4. Understanding the impact of culture on a firm’s entrepreneurial orientation and behaviour: a conceptual framework1 Alain Fayolle, Olivier Basso and Véronique Bouchard INTRODUCTION For almost four decades now, both practitioners and scholars have shown a marked interest in corporate entrepreneurship. In a changing world, large and small companies have to innovate and react quickly just to maintain their competitiveness (Ireland et al., 2001). They have to continually identify new opportunities and turn these opportunities into revenue streams: they have to behave entrepreneurially (Stevenson and Jarillo, 1990; Shane and Venkataraman, 2000). In the entrepreneurship literature, corporate entrepreneurship is defined in a variety of ways and there is an abundance of empirical research linking corporate entrepreneurship to performance. In all these studies, the entrepreneurial orientation construct holds a particularly important place (see, for example, Lumpkin and Dess, 1996; Wiklund, 1999; Wiklund and Shepherd, 2003). Measured through dimensions such as innovativeness, risk-taking, proactiveness, autonomy and competitive aggressiveness (Miller, 1983; Covin and Slevin, 1989; Lumpkin and Dess, 1996), the entrepreneurial orientation construct appears as a useful (and powerful) tool for assessing entrepreneurial behaviour at firm level and its effect on firm performance. According to Lumpkin and Dess (1996, p. 136), ‘firms that want to engage in successful corporate entrepreneurship need to have an entrepreneurial orientation’. Entrepreneurial orientation is often described in entrepreneurship literature as the mindset of firms engaged in the pursuit of new opportunities. Research on entrepreneurial orientation focuses on its definition, its measure and its relationship with the performance of...
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