Handbook on the Economics of Women in Sports
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Handbook on the Economics of Women in Sports

Edited by Eva Marikova Leeds and Michael A. Leeds

Women’s sports have received much less attention from economists than from other social scientists. This Handbook fills that gap with a comprehensive economic analysis of women’s sports. It also analyzes how the behavior and treatment of female athletes reflect broad economic forces.
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Chapter 13: Coaching women and women coaching: pay differentials in the Title IX era

Peter von Allmen


Title IX changed the landscape of intercollegiate sports for female high-school and college athletes. Prior to Title IX, colleges and universities averaged just 2.5 women’s teams per institution, and total participation was fewer than 20,000 students. By 2010, schools fielded an average of 8.64 women’s teams (over 9,000 teams in total), with over 1,500 additions in the last ten years alone. The number of female athletes now exceeds 180,000 (Acosta and Carpenter, 2010). Opportunities to coach women’s teams have grown with the number of female athletes. Ironically, the percentage of women employed as college coaches of women’s teams has declined almost continuously since 1972. As Figure 13.1 shows, approximately 90 percent of women’s teams were coached by women prior to Title IX.

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