A New Perspective on Climate Policy
Edited by Valentina Bosetti, Carlo Carraro, Emanuele Massetti and Massimo Tavoni
Chapter 7: A Focus on the Latest Developments in the Modelling of Mitigation Options
The work of modelling is never completed, as models can and should be improved as soon as better or new information concerning processes or data becomes available. This chapter1 aims at informing the reader on changes, improvements and augmenting features that have been made to the WITCH model during the last two years. In particular, as the modelling of emission mitigation options is a central component of the WITCH model, these improvements mainly concern the mitigation/technological side of model. Reflecting this on-going initiative to refine the WITCH model, this chapter reviews a range of possible mitigation options which have been incorporated into different versions of the model. With the WITCH model having a focus on climate policy, many of the additional mitigation issues chosen for further review are those which involve a greater focus on the provision or use of energy within the economy. The structure of the energy sector is of great importance to the overall emission profile of an economy and the introduction of new technologies provides many of the potential emission reductions modelled within both the base and the extended versions of the WITCH model. With the model design aiming to track the major actions which impact mitigation (such as R & D expenditures, investments in carbonfree technologies and adaptation), the range of additional mitigation issues that can potentially be covered is broad. Following this, the range of mitigation issues currently developed for inclusion into the WITCH model is diverse and ranges from the early retirement of power plants to changes in the use of fuels within key non-energy sectors. In Section 7.2 there is a review of a range of technology-based mitigation options within the energy sector, such as the early retirement of power plants (Capital Vintaging), additional (or refined) representations of renewable energy options (Refinement of Renewable Technologies), and the capture/storage of carbon dioxide (Capturing Carbon). Section 7.3 investigates the changes to policy costs that occur with the addition of oil trade between regions. Section 7.4 then focuses on the inclusion of a light duty vehicle transport sector to allow for mobility demand and breakthrough technologies in personally owned light duty vehicles.
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