Ethics and the Evaluation of Transport Policies and Projects
- Transport Economics, Management and Policy series
Chapter 4: Social Exclusion
4. Social exclusion 4.1 INTRODUCTION Questions related to social exclusion include: ● ● ● ● ● Does it matter if people are socially excluded due to voluntary versus involuntary choice? Is social exclusion only a problem for those excluded, or also for society? How to value a reduction in social exclusion? How to compare related policies? Is the willingness to pay of socially excluded persons an appropriate indicator for the value of a reduction in social exclusion? What is a reasonable minimum level of (possibilities for) participation in social activities? How much is it worth to avoid lower levels than this minimum? Does it matter if social exclusion is the result of public policies instead of ‘autonomous trends’? Answering these, and other related questions, is not at all straightforward. This chapter aims to discuss social exclusion from an ethical perspective. Definition and Background One of the most frequently studied ethical issues in mainstream transport literature is the subject of social exclusion. The term social exclusion ‘emerged as an important policy concept in France in the 1970s in response to the growing social divides that resulted from new labour market conditions and the inadequacy of the existing social welfare provisions to meet the changing needs of more dispersed populations’ (Luxton, 2002; cited in Rajé, 2003: 322). In the literature the term social inclusion can also be found, referring to the process away from social exclusion. Social inclusion can be seen as an overarching concept that can include policies (but not necessarily only policies) to reduce social...
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