Building Innovative Ecosystems
Edited by John Sibley Butler and David V. Gibson
Chapter 9: Technology Transfer in Mexico: Trends in Public Policies and the Program at Monterrey International City of Knowledge
9. Technology transfer in Mexico: trends in public policies and the program at Monterrey International City of Knowledge Jaime Parada Ávila INTRODUCTION: OVERVIEW OF FRAMEWORK CONDITIONS FOR INNOVATION AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER IN MEXICO 1 Technology transfer (TT) is a very important element for the economic development of a country or region. It can be defined as the transfer of new technologies across international borders, generally from developed countries to others still in development, or, at a local level, from universities or research institutes to third parties capable of commercializing the technology as new services or products. In Mexico, the Foundation for the National Award in Technology, in its glossary, defines technology transfer as the ordered and systematic flow of technologies in an organization, either done internally or externally. In the latter case, it is normally regulated by a commercial agreement that involves economic remuneration. Although there is already an official norm for terminology in technology management (NMXGT001IMNC2007), which defines technology transfer, the process itself is not established as a systematic transfer of technologies among Mexico’s national research centers and universities to the industrial sector, which might explain the minimal impact of the national science and technology policies in the economic development of the country. If one compares the gross domestic expenditures on R&D (GERD) financed by the productive sector in some of the main Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries with the situation in Mexico (see Table 9.1), one sees that the level of expenditure is significantly...
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