What Implications for the ‘European Social Model’?
Edited by Marie-Ange Moreau
Chapter 11: A Dual European Social Citizenship?
Claire Marzo INTRODUCTION Professor Bercusson was one of the first authors to argue for a social citizenship at the EU level. In his manifesto,1 he foresaw its possible evolution at a time when European citizenship was still considered an empty shell.2 He argued in favour of a social citizenship: he believed that the European Union could be given a social turn and fought his whole life to make this come true.3 European citizenship has indeed been transformed. Instead of reflecting only political rights, it has been associated with the freedom of movement of workers.4 After the Martínez Sala case, it was given a social content.5 Article 21 FEU (formerly Article 18 EC) concerning the freedom of movement of European citizens and Article 18 FEU (formerly Article 12 EC) concerning the principle of non-discrimination on grounds of nationality were associated to extend rights formerly limited to workers. Social benefits were given to European citizens on Mückenberger, U., B. Bercusson,S. Deakin, P. Koistinen, Y. Kravaritou, A. Supiot and B. Veneziani (1997), ‘Manifesto for a Social Europe’, European Law Journal, 3 (2), 189–205. 2 Jacqueson, C. (2002), ‘Union Citizenship and the Court of Justice, Something New under the Sun? Towards Social Citizenship’, European Law Review, 3, 260–281 3 Bercusson, B. (1993), ‘EU Citizenship and Fundamental Social Rights: Community Law, European Law, National Law’, in P. Rodière (ed.), La citoyenneté européenne face au droit social et au droit du travail, Trèves, ERA Bundesanzeiger, Vol. 14,...
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