The International Handbook on Social Innovation
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The International Handbook on Social Innovation

Collective Action, Social Learning and Transdisciplinary Research

Edited by Frank Moulaert, Diana MacCallum, Abid Mehmood and Abdelillah Hamdouch

The contributors provide an overview of theoretical perspectives, methodologies and instructive experiences from all continents, as well as implications for collective action and policy. They argue strongly for social innovation as a key to human development. The Handbook defines social innovation as innovation in social relations within both micro and macro spheres, with the purpose of satisfying unmet or new human needs across different layers of society. It connects social innovation to empowerment dynamics, thus giving a political character to social movements and bottom-up governance initiatives. Together these should lay the foundations for a fairer, more democratic society for all.
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Chapter 22: Technological incubators of solidarity economy initiatives: a methodology for promoting social innovation in Brazil

Collective Action, Social Learning and Transdisciplinary Research

Ana Dubeux


Like many emerging economies, Brazil has long suffered from the consequences of a colonial development pact (Prado Junior 2006). It is a society marked by social exclusion, whose consequences are apparent in the country’s very high unemployment and under-employment rates. Between the 1960s and the early 2000s, accelerating industrial growth, the rise of the global market and reorganized global production processes deepened the impact of exclusion throughout Brazil. One small segment of Brazilian society inherited the land and, with it, the country’s wealth and political power; a much larger segment lives in conditions of acute poverty, even destitution. This in turn leads to social and economic marginalization, a situation clearly demonstrated by data gathered from the country’s main cities (IBGE 2010). For the people living mainly on the outskirts of the major cities, this marginalization is reproduced territorially.

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