A Biographical Dictionary of Women Economists
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A Biographical Dictionary of Women Economists

Edited by Robert W. Dimand, Mary Ann Dimand and Evelyn L. Forget

This major original reference work includes over one hundred specially commissioned articles on the lives and writings of women who made significant contributions to economics. It sheds new light on the rich, but too often neglected, heritage of women’s analysis of economic issues and participation in the discipline of economics. In addition to those who wrote in English, some notable Danish, Dutch, French, German, Greek, Italian, Japanese, Russian and Swedish women economists are included. This book will transform widely-held views about the past role of women in economics, and will stimulate further research in this exciting but underdeveloped field. It is dedicated to the memory of Michèle Pujol, a pioneer in the field.
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Edith Tilton Penrose

Michael H. Best and Jane Humphries


(1892), ‘How Women Can Earn Money: Lecture by Miss Virginia Penny at the Cooper Union’, New York Times, 20 February, p. 8, col. 3. Other sources and references ‘Our American Sisters’ (1863), English Woman’s Journal, XI, 204–9. ‘Review of Employments of Women’, New York Times, 25 January 1863, p. 2, col. 3. ‘A Woman’s Sacrifice: Miss Virginia Penny’s Labors on Behalf of the Members of her Sex – What She Found Women Could Do’, Chicago (n.d.). Copies at Library of Congress, Syracuse University, Rutgers University, New York University, State University of New York at Binghampton, Columbia University, Pennsylvania State University. ‘Woman Worker in Want: Miss Virginia Penny, Who Spent a Fortune for Her Sex, In a Helpless Condition’, New York Times, 1 August 1902, p. 5, col. 3. Edith Tilton Penrose (1914–96)1 Economists responsible for new ideas and approaches are often acknowledged through eponyms; their names denote a mode of analysis or a way of looking at the world, as with ‘Walrasian equilibrium’ or ‘Keynesian demand’. It is rare for a woman’s name to be so distinguished within the discourse of economics. The ‘Penrosian firm’ is an exception. It immortalizes Edith Penrose. It might seem that Penrose is doubly honoured in that her name is associated with an institution that appears central to economic life. But ‘the firm’, while clearly the hub of economic activity in the real world, until recently was a ‘black box’ as far as economic theory was concerned. Penrose was a pioneer in...

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