The International Handbook of Environmental Sociology
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The International Handbook of Environmental Sociology

Edited by Michael R. Redclift and Graham Woodgate

The International Handbook of Environmental Sociology is a major interdisciplinary reference work on the developing field of environmental sociology. It consists of over 30 specially commissioned essays by leading scholars from around the world. These original essays examine a wide range of environmental issues in the developed and developing world as well as formerly centrally planned countries to present a truly international perspective. Together they analyse theory and concepts, philosophical and empirical issues as well as offering practical policy advice.
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Chapter 21: The evolution of the relationship between ecologism and nationalism

Inaki Barcena, Pedro Ibarra and Mario Zubiaga


Iiiaki Barcena, Pedro Ibarra and Mario Zubiaga INTRODUCTION This chapter on the relationship between ecologism and nationalism has three different approaches which, in turn, correspond to three successive historical periods. In the first section we adopt a somewhat static analytical perspective, which corresponds to the birth of the ecologist movement in the 1960s, in order to investigate the similarities and differences between the central paradigms and movements of both ecologism and nationalism. The second part focuses on the confluences between the two movements, situating us at the transition point between the 1960s and the 1970s. Finally, beginning with the 1990s, we attempt to generate some hypotheses regarding the relationship between both movements, centring on the symbiosis between them. THE ‘STARTING POINT’ In Table 21.1, the features of the two movements are defined and compared. Before we explain the variables (those which we consider to be the most relevant ones) in the table, we must first make some observations. The table provides a static vision of the two movements, describing the panorama of a hypothetical moment at the beginning of the 1960s, what we could call the starting point for the confrontation and convergence of the two movements, and in which earlier developments are not highlighted. On the other hand, we also have to make clear what type of ecologism and what type of nationalism are described in the table. From within the three cultural references, or discourses, into which the ecology movement is divided (subordination of people to nature: deep...

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