A Multi-National Approach
Page 7 2— The Framework for Policy Analysis The growing attention to crossborder competition problems is part of a general increase in attention around the world to competition in globalizing markets. Governments are adopting more procompetitive policies in areas such as deregulation, privatization, and foreign direct investment. They recognize that, however these policies are labelled, they can impact on competition and efficiency in national as well as internationalizing markets. These trends reflect the convergence of views around the world towards governments putting more emphasis on market mechanisms and competition in markets as a means of improving efficiency in individual economies. For example, in many countries public utilities were deregulated and, in most cases, privatized during the 1980s and 1990s. Deregulation had a similar effect to trade liberalization; the partial freeing up of markets revealed the need for further policy actions to make sure that the maximum benefits were derived from liberalization. These effects are particularly notable in East European countries which are dismantling state control of all industries (see Estrin and Holmes, 1998) but they are observable in many other developed and developing countries. The number of countries with competition laws increased rapidly in the 1990s. All OECD countries have competition laws. Many nonOECD countries do not have a general competition law directed at anticompetitive business conduct. Thirty countries adopted competition laws in the 1990s and over 20 had them under preparation as at mid1996 (UNCTAD, 1997, Annex Table A.22). All of these in both...
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