Promoting Competition in Global Markets
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Promoting Competition in Global Markets

A Multi-National Approach

P. J. Lloyd and Kerrin M. Vautier

This book sheds new light on a major issue on the international trade policy agenda – the promotion and defence of competition in globalizing markets. The authors discuss multi-national approaches to competition policy in the WTO, European Union, the Americas, OECD, UNCTAD and CER. They investigate the policy responses to anti-competitive, cross-border business transactions and argue that a growing reliance on competition law is not in itself sufficient to promote competition in globalizing markets.
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Chapter 11: An Historic Case - The Kodak/Fuji Dispute

P. J. Lloyd and Kerrin M. Vautier


Page 175 11—  An Historic Case: The Kodak/Fuji Dispute Introduction The WTO is a multilateral body designed to regulate government behaviour through agreed obligations. Its rules do not cover the conduct of private firms and there is  no provision for rule­of­reason assessment of the market impact of private business conduct (see WTO, 1998b, p. 173) nor of market structures themselves, although  private actions may be deemed to be affected by government measures (WTO, 1998b, p. 387). Even if there were such provisions, the WTO operates within a  market access/trade framework and not a competition framework. Essentially it is governed by market access objectives and concerns about the impact of  government measures on trade and its possible nullification or impairment. As the result of a trade dispute between the US and Japan, the US took a complaint to the WTO relating to its exports to Japan of photographic film and paper. This  has become known as the Kodak/Fuji dispute but the full name of the case adjudicated by the WTO Panel was Japan—Measures Affecting Consumer  Photographic Film and Paper. This is a major case which illustrates the procedures and the problems of dispute settlement in relation to competition matters in the  WTO. Kodak and Fuji Film are private firms. A WTO panel could not therefore be asked to rule on the conduct of those firms nor on the impact of their conduct on  competition in the relevant market. More specifically, a panel could not determine whether or not...

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