Chapter 1: AI to optimize the effectiveness and efficiency of public services
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AI remains this (1) blurry (i.e., conceptual challenges, ongoing developments and multiple applications), (2) sometimes unreliable (i.e, AI technical or adversarial vulnerabilities, data and algorithm bias), (3) and often opaque (i.e., blackbox phenomenon) technological agent (4) with various degrees of agency (i.e., capacity to observe its environment, learn from it, and take smart action or propose decisions). E-government efforts intend to advantage of technological advances to (a) optimize the effectiveness and efficiency of government services, (b) put the citizen back at the center of the design of services rendered by organizations, and (c) increase trust in government. AI is increasingly used in the fields of healthcare, education, social and cultural services since it can be considered useful for six types of government challenges: allocating resources, analyzing large datasets, overcoming the shortage of experts, predicting scenarios, managing procedural and repetitive tasks, and diverse data aggregation and summarization. AI supports governments in improving their knowledge management capacity, mapping and predicting risks, and automatizing data collection and analysis, public services, decision-making processes, and the communication with citizens.