Chapter 2: Policy entrepreneurs: Skills and resources to identify and exploit open policy windows
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The Multiple Streams Framework (MSF) is a powerful conceptualization of the policy process, and specifically agenda-setting. It argues that policy entrepreneurs (e.g., civil society) need resources (e.g., technology) and specific skills (e.g., engaging multiple audience) to develop and implement tactics (e.g., narrative reframing) through problem, policy and politics streams, to identify and exploit successfully open policy windows. Hence, there cannot be any form of democracy without freedom of political choice. If conventional forms of participation (i.e., voting, referendum) are in decline in some liberal democracies, other forms of participation have developed including street protests and boycotts, leading some scholars to argue in favor of a transformation of citizen participation rather than a decline.