Countermeasures against terrorist attacks should be regarded as the collective or joint moral responsibility to perform joint actions on the part of multiple members of various groups of actors, including but not limited to members of security agencies; in doing so they have as their collective end to prevent or respond to these attacks. The development of an effective CT strategy may require not only designing and implementing counter-measures and the like for existing institutions and institutional actors but, in addition, the redesign of institutions and institutional roles, for example, the establishment of an agency to coordinate the CT strategy across various agencies that now have to cooperate more closely. Moreover, some of these institutional changes are likely to include new laws to restrict terrorist operations, for example, in relation to terrorist propaganda, and the granting of new legal powers to be attached to institutional actors, for example, new powers of detention for police. Accordingly, important questions may arise in relation to the moral, as opposed to pragmatic, justification, for these new laws and legal powers. In short, the collective moral responsibility to protect the members of the liberal democratic society from terrorist attacks needs to be discharged by institutional arrangements, including laws, that also respect individual moral rights.

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