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This chapter takes stock of the methodologies employed in comparative social policy analysis. It traces the evolution and development of comparative methodology, empirically analysing trends in the Journal of European Social Policy since its first issue, situating comparative analysis within the broader trends and debates. The authors focus on both methods and substance, looking at how major techniques and approaches have been applied in comparative social policy asking three key questions: What is the scholarly use of comparative methods in social policy over the last three decades? How has the comparative methodology helped us to better understand the role, nature, and outcomes of European social policy? Where is comparative methodology heading for the future? A key finding is that while scholarship seems to be geared more and more toward studies based on causation and more sophisticated techniques, the case study approach is foundational and continues to occupy a prominent place.