Chapter 11: An ideal city vs 21st-century pragmatism
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This chapter argues with the idea that with the fall of the great modernist narratives, urban utopias have been replaced by a pragmatic approach. Drawing on the criteria determined by the history of the ideal city concept, the author has analysed examples of 21st-century urban visions. The aim was to determine whether contemporary ideal cities contribute to utopianism as understood by Ruth Levitas and become a method for creating institutions and influencing society. The examples were ordered as blueprint (Apollonian), those in the state of transition expressed in the lack of a fixed topos, and iconoclast (Dionysian) – abolishing the rules of classical utopianism, followed by an evaluation of projects currently being implemented. The overarching conclusion of the study is that the current tendency in architecture is utopian, although this is not visible at first sight. There are surprisingly many features linking Levitas's utopia as method and contemporary architectural visions.