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In this chapter we outline the core characteristics of modern, early 20th century organization, the form that resulted from the rise of scientific management. These organizations, often labelled Tayloristic, had a significant impact on the organizational landscape of the past century – and continue to project a strong influence. The importance of the modern organizational form cannot be discounted; it contributed to the spread of bureaucracy being added to prior conceptions of hierarchy as defining and inevitable features of modernity.