Bibliometrics, or the study of publication-based output, is a method widely applied in evaluation. As pressure for quantitative evidence of the success and impact of research efforts has grown, the use of bibliometrics has spread. The most common and accepted use is for the analysis of the output of basic research. However, bibliometrics is also useful as a partial indicator of overall R & D output, and of the productivity and impact of funded research teams and centers. The bibliometric evaluation of research and development activities remains one of the most challenging issues in program evaluation despite the effort devoted over the last few decades to develop and test reliable and accurate measures of research output. Fundamental issues arise in the use of bibliometric measurements of research and development activities. For example, a potentially long time frame – easily a decade or more – is needed to judge the results of research programs fairly.
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