People want jobs, ideally good jobs, and some support when things go wrong. The fundamental policy question is how to deliver jobs and sufficient growth to provide the public services expected. Some would argue that innovation is part of the answer, if not the only answer, but innovation is a complex phenomenon and the implementation of an innovation policy is not straightforward. More needs to be known about innovation and how it connects to the economy and the society. A step in this direction is learning how to measure the activity of innovation and its links to the innovation system. This handbook is a guide to how this is being done now and may be done in the future. It is written at a time when the domain of innovation studies is expanding and there are discussions about the definition of innovation for measurement purposes.