Research Handbook on Money Laundering
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Research Handbook on Money Laundering

Edited by Brigitte Unger and Daan van der Linde

Although the practice of disguising the illicit origins of money dates back thousands of years, the concept of money laundering as a multidisciplinary topic with social, economic, political and regulatory implications has only gained prominence since the 1980s. This groundbreaking volume offers original, state-of-the-art research on the current money laundering debate and provides insightful predictions and recommendations for future developments in the field.
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Chapter 13: Measuring global money laundering: the ‘Walker Gravity Model’

John Walker and Brigitte Unger


Data on crime and crime prevention which are a prerequisite for measuring money laundering have improved substantially within the last two decades. In particular, the international community now has a detailed knowledge base on the illicit drug economy. The UN calculates the cultivation and production of opium and cocaine worldwide quite accurately (see UN World Drugs Report 2008; UNDOC 2011). The annual UNODC International Crop Monitoring Programme Surveys provide annual statistics on the cultivation and production of drugs, as well as prices, yield and the farm gate, wholesale and retail market valuations that are calculated from them (see also the contribution of Pietschmann in this volume for the Cocaine market, Chapter 16). The economics of money laundering which aims at exploring the scale and impact of illicit funds is a relatively new field (see e.g. Masciandaro et al. 2007; Unger 2007). Producing reliable estimates of laundering is essential for this strand of literature.

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