Research Handbook on Money Laundering
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Research Handbook on Money Laundering

Edited by Brigitte Unger and Daan van der Linde

Although the practice of disguising the illicit origins of money dates back thousands of years, the concept of money laundering as a multidisciplinary topic with social, economic, political and regulatory implications has only gained prominence since the 1980s. This groundbreaking volume offers original, state-of-the-art research on the current money laundering debate and provides insightful predictions and recommendations for future developments in the field.
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Chapter 25: E-gaming, money laundering and the problem of risk assessment

Michael Levi


Criminal risk levels are a combination of criminal motivations, existing/developing criminal capacities, and situational opportunities for crimes offered by the way control is organised. Gambling is an area of considerable moral controversy and legislative/judicial change within and outside the European Union (EU). There is scope for improvement in controls over fraud and laundering and regulators need to be vigilant about the resourcing levels of anti-fraud/Anti-Money Laundering (AML) efforts in the private sector, as well as being internationally consistent in their requirements, following deliberation between different regulators and consultation with the industry. There is much mythology about e-gaming laundering risks, fed by: (a) the self-interest of monopolistic and other state lotteries; (b) inadequate information (though it is not obvious what levels of information would count as ‘adequate’); and (c) a tendency to project a dislike of gaming – and/or private sector involvement in it – into alarm about e-crime in general and the role of gaming in e-crime in particular.

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