International Handbook on Social Policy and the Environment
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International Handbook on Social Policy and the Environment

Edited by Tony Fitzpatrick

Environmental change is central to the global social policy challenges of the twenty-first century. This comprehensive Handbook brings together leading experts from around the world to address the most important questions and issues we face. How should welfare states adapt to environmental change? To what extent are the ecological and social policy agendas compatible? Must we contemplate radical reforms to the principles and organisation of welfare services? Combining cutting-edge theory and data in an interdisciplinary approach, this Handbook both summarises existing developments and suggests how debates and research must develop in the future.
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Chapter 12: The interaction of EU climate policies: mechanisms and lessons

Elin Lerum Boasson and Jørgen Wettestad


A 'new drive' took place in European Union (EU) climate policy from 2005 on, resulting in a number of revised or new climate policies, with the 2008 climate and energy package as the 'jewel in the crown' (e.g. Jordan et al. 2010; Wurzel and Connelly 2011; Boasson and Wettestad 2013). There are good reasons to assume that policy interaction was a prominent feature of the policy development process. For instance, the European Commission (hereafter: Commission) gave policy integration much attention, calling the climate policy outcomes 'an integrated package'. But the actual EU climate policy coherence was being questioned when the climate package was adopted in December 2008. The British economist Dieter Helm argued that 'EU climate policy has multiple instruments, the overlaps between which have not been adequately considered . . . [and] as a result, the package is very unlikely to have the intended effects, and it will be high cost' (Helm 2009: 8; see also Carbon Trust 2008). Subsequent events have shone further critical light on the actual integration and coherence of EU climate policy. Not least, the growing success of renewables and the adoption of more binding and effective energy efficiency policy threaten to further undermine the sagging demand for allowances within the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS).

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