Edited by Thomas C. Kinnaman and Kenji Takeuchi
Chapter 7: Industrial waste shipments and trade restrictions
In many countries, industrial waste generated in one area is often transported to other areas for disposal. Some waste is even moved across state or prefecture jurisdictions. This is a natural occurrence from the stand-point of economic efficiency. However, as Sasao (2004a, 2004b) reveals, the public has a negative view of the disposal of waste, particularly industrial waste, originating from outside of their community even though the pollution level generated from waste disposal is similar to that of waste originating from inside of their community. This is the so-called not in my backyard (NIMBY) syndrome that results in certain local governments, such as states or prefectures, imposing waste trade restrictions on shipments of industrial waste even though the national government permits it. In Japan, for example, more than half the prefectures restrict free interprefectural shipments of industrial waste in order to proactively control and reduce waste inflow, despite the Japanese government permitting it. In addition, more than half the prefectures enforce a local waste tax called the industrial waste tax, mainly to promote the reduction, reuse, and recycling (3Rs) principle and proper industrial waste disposal, although the national government does not enforce these policies. The introduction of an industrial waste taxation is relevant to waste trade restrictions because some prefectures discuss industrial waste taxation as a part of waste control. Note that waste trade restriction and industrial waste taxation are not implemented in urban areas, including the Tokyo metropolitan area and Osaka.
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