Handbook of Research on Promoting Women’s Careers
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Handbook of Research on Promoting Women’s Careers

Edited by Susan Vinnicombe, Ronald J. Burke, Stacy Blake-Beard and Lynda L. Moore

In a changing world where women have dominated as graduates from universities in the West, recent research has shown that the same trend is also strikingly evident in the newly emerging markets. Tapping into this female talent pool is extremely important and advancing women’s careers has become a key business issue. This Handbook lays out a number of promising approaches. First the business case for doing so is presented. The challenges facing women are reviewed, followed by various programs that address particular needs such as mentoring, leadership development programs for women, work and family initiatives, and succession planning. Finally, case studies of award-winning organizational initiatives are described.
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Chapter 1: Gender ratios in organizations: managerial and cross-cultural issues

Hetty van Emmerik and Merel M.S. Kats


Varying gender ratios in organizations referring to the percentage of female employees are important to explain structural and interpersonal dynamics and these different proportions reflect different opportunities and outcomes for male and female employees. Especially, the varying gender ratios in management teams are important and a reason for concern, since gender ratios are indicative of the position of women in management within the organization as well as related to important behaviors and outcomes of male and female managers (Van Emmerik et al., 2010). Moreover, old wisdom, that still holds, states that the ratio of men to women in an occupation (management) affects salary, mobility and psychological outcomes, resulting in an inverse relation between the proportion of women in a specific occupation and the salary of both men and women working in that occupation (Pfeffer and Davis-Blake,1987). Monitoring gender ratios is not a new issue; the importance of examining the differential effects of varying gender ratios in organizations was already recognized in the 1970s.

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