Handbook of Research on Creativity
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Handbook of Research on Creativity

Edited by Kerry Thomas and Janet Chan

In this timely work, creativity is not defined by an ideal, rather it encompasses a range of theories, functions, characteristics, processes, products and practices that are associated with the generation of novel and useful outcomes suited to particular social, cultural and political contexts. Chapters present original research by international scholars from a wide range of disciplines including history, sociology, psychology, philosophy, cultural studies, education, economics and interdisciplinary studies. Their research investigates creativity in diverse fields including art, creative industries, aesthetics, design, new media, music, arts education, science, engineering and technology.
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Chapter 32: European cultural policies and the ‘creative industries’ turn

Pierre-Michel Menger


Defined as a systematic collection of actions and measures taken under ministerial authority and under the aegis of a specialized administration, and associated with local and regional authority action, the cultural policies of numerous democratic European countries are now fifty years old. They are part of the history of the creation of the Welfare State. Their implementation has gone along with the invention and rise of educational policy, social policy and health policy. Comparing various countries’ policies reveals few differences between national models when it comes to the broad aims of public action. Variations appear to arise primarily from two factors which are usually foremost in comparatives studies: that of the delegation of choice and action, or the direct exercise of responsibility under ministerial authority and its administration and that of the centralized, decentralized or federal nature of public action (van der Ploeg, 2006).

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