International Handbook on Ecotourism
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International Handbook on Ecotourism

Edited by Roy Ballantyne and Jan Packer

This Handbook brings together contributions from over forty international experts in the field of ecotourism. It provides a critical review and discussion of current issues and concepts – it challenges readers to consider the boundaries of what ecotourism is, and could be. The Handbook provides practical information regarding the business of ecotourism; insights into ecotourist behaviour and visitor experiences; and reflections on the practice of ecotourism in a range of different contexts.
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Chapter 7: Ecotourism, biological invasions and biosecurity

C. Michael Hall and Tim Baird


The conservation of biological diversity (biodiversity) is integral to the viability of ecotourism (Hall, 2007). Biodiversity refers to the total sum of biotic variation, ranging from the genetic level, through the species level and on to the ecosystem level (Martens, Rotmans & de Groot, 2003). Unfortunately, ‘there are multiple indications of continuing decline in biodiversity in all three of its main components – genes, species and ecosystems’ (Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, 2010, p. 9), with the continued growth in biological invasion being a significant contributor to loss of biodiversity(Gössling, 2002; Gössling & Hall, 2006; Hall, 2010a, 2011a; Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, 2010, p. 9).Compared to other environmental problems, invasive species present at least six particular management and policy challenges (after Keller, Geist, Jeschke & Khün,2011).

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