Edited by Chris Bilton and Stephen Cummings
The final part of this handbook considers the organisational structures and conditions which frame innovation, entrepreneurship and leadership. Discussions of creativity and management tend to position creativity as a specialism within an organisation rather than as a characteristic of the organisation as a whole. This section considers how we organise for creativity, and how this is itself a creative act. Paul Kohler is a veteran of the video games industry. In 2007 he decided to make creativity in the video games industry the subject of a PhD. Speaking to managers, developers and designers, he established that creativity was a relative concept ñ games had to be ëcreative enoughí for the market. This led him to the concept of a ëcreative continuumí, with highly original games at one end of the spectrum and re-workings or adaptations of existing games at the other. A new game, aiming to transform the market and initiate a new franchise ñ literally a ëgame changerí for the company ñ would require a heavy investment of resources (time and money). A movie spin-off would require less creative input and hence less investment. Spending too much time on a sequel and overachieving on quality would be a waste of resources; investing too little on an original game was likewise a category error. Leadership had to know when to give the creative teams a free rein, and when to impose tighter budgetary and technical constraints.
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