Edited by Hamid Etemad
Chapter 3: Broadening the domain of international entrepreneurship: towards the consolidation of the field
The field of international entrepreneurship (IE) has been developing rapidly for almost three decades. Although it has generated a rich research base, it is still seen as an emergent discipline (e.g. McDougall and Oviatt 2000: 906; Jones and Nummela 2008: 349; Mathews and Zander 2007: 12). As is the case for any scientific field that undergoes the process of establishment, IE has experienced formation problems in terms of defining its unique subject, developing core theoretical concepts, and choosing directions for future research (Hisrich et al. 1996; Zahra and George 2002: 260; Etemad and Lee 2003; Etemad and Wright 2003; Zahra et al. 2004; Etemad 2008). Meanwhile, the primary interest of IE researchers has been focused on the internationalization of small and newly established firms (Keupp and Gassman 2009; Etemad 1999a, 1999b). However, in recent IE literature, scholars are constantly calling for broadening the scope of IE to bring the established and large companies within its study domain (e.g. Giamartino et al. 1993; Coviello and Jones 2004; Zucchella and Scabini 2007; Keupp and Gassman 2009). They argue that this delimitation will help the field to attain self-determination and develop as a distinct area of scholarly inquiry (Zahra and George 2002: 260; Young et al. 2003).
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