The Process of Internationalization in Emerging SMEs and Emerging Economies
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The Process of Internationalization in Emerging SMEs and Emerging Economies

Edited by Hamid Etemad

This book, the fourth volume in the McGill International Entrepreneurship Series, brings together 27 top scholars to explore the structural complexities, evolving relations and dynamic forces that are shaping a new system of multi-polar, multi-level international business relations. It examines entrepreneurial efforts and relations in different national and corporate cultures, each embedded in and also constrained by country-specific socio-economic structures and each vying for consumer attentions in competitive global markets.
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Chapter 17: Reflections and conclusions

Hamid Etemad


This chapter, simply entitled “Reflections and Conclusions”, aims to offer some reflective insights based in part on the lessons of the McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference Series (the fifteenth McGill International Conference took place in 2012), and also on the chapters of this volume. Individually and collectively, the content of the chapters strongly portrays international entrepreneurship as a field increasingly resembling a dynamic open complex adaptive system, or DOCAS for short (Etemad 2004a). In an open and dynamic system, many concerned agents act in self-interest (and at times habitually) to exert influence on the system (usually through a subsystem open to such influences or at a proximate point) in order to mitigate against what they perceive as the threat of oncoming influences with potentially adverse impacts. We define the concerned agents as those who feel certain degrees of dependency, or interdependencies, on the broader system and which may be categorized as: (1) those who are related to, or dependent on, and thus impacted explicitly by the system and find it necessary to interact with the system to minimize the adverse effects; and (2) those who are perceived to be under the implicit (or potential) influences attributed to the system. We also include those who are not, or who are remotely, dependent on the system but are in a position to take opportunistic action to impact the course of the system’s evolution in order to benefit from it.

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