Edited by Rolf Sternberg and Gerhard Krauss
Chapter 7: Entrepreneurship in creative industries: the paradox between individual professionalization and dependence on social contexts and professional scenes
The chapter refers to the striking moment that the high proportion of factual micro-entrepreneurial professions emerged without direct governmental support. Fora few years, the status of entrepreneurs in creative industries has been associated with a highly ambiguous situation: the newly invented catchword of a 'new entrepreneurship' that alludes to individualized marketing strategies, self-promotion and social hardships on the one side, but also to skilful alternation between unemployment benefit, temporary jobs, self-employment structures and new temporary network coalitions on the other (McRobbie 2002; Ross 2008). The key question is: How do entrepreneurs in creative industries invent strategies to cope with the paradox between individual professionalization and dependence on social contexts and professional scenes? Following Scott (2006, p. 13), performing intense multiple and constantly shifting transaction structures in cultural-products industries means that much of the 'workforce becomes enmeshed in a network of mutually dependent and socially coordinated career paths' as he describes it (ibid.). This new work ethos has been celebrated ironically with the term 'digital bohème' (Friebe and Lobo 2006).
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