Chapter 5: Conceptualizing the climate for innovation in public and nonprofit organizations
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Questions on the topic of innovation have yielded a substantial volume of literature across several disciplines. The importance of innovation as it relates to the vitality of organizations has been studied mostly in the context of for-profit businesses, although studies illuminating the usefulness and importance of innovation in government and nonprofit organizations have also come to the fore, detailing innovative practices and their antecedents as well as the diffusion of these innovations. Much of the extant research emphasizes innovation’s role in organizational performance and government reforms, improvements in management processes, resource dependency and times of financial crisis, and other contexts in which innovation plays a significant role. Despite the large body of research on various types of innovation, many questions about the organizational aspects of innovation need further re-examination and analysis. Such questions concern the nature of innovation in public and nonprofit organizations, whether those two sectors differ in innovativeness, the environmental factors that affect organizational innovation, or the various components that comprise a climate in which innovations can be produced (Daman pour and Evan, 1984; Trop man, 1989; Kimberly et al., 1990; Linden, 1990; Borins, 1998; Light, 1998; Jaskyte, 2004, 2005; McDonald, 2007; Walker, 2008; Birkinshaw et al., 2008). Are there specific factors or antecedents that promote or inhibit innovation?

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