Adaptation and Extreme Events at the Local Level
Edited by E. Carina H. Keskitalo
Chapter 8: Flooding and the Carrot River Watershed Source Water Protection Plan, Saskatchewan: civic engagement and causal stories
Over the past few decades internationally, there has been a sea change in how governments choose to manage climate change, and participate in environmental and water governance. Whereas a top-down, ‘command and control’ perspective once dominated, policy creation has increasingly turned toward a more collective and collaborative model that includes multi-sector actors from both inside and outside government (World Bank 2003; Hurlbert and Corkal 2009; Hurlbert et al. 2009; Simms and de Loë 2010). As Hurlbert and Corkal note, ‘Citizen engagement and feedback are essential requirements to achieve successful adaptations to cope with climate stress’ (Hurlbert and Corkal 2009: 236). A related innovation in international water policy has been the move to Integrated Water Management (IWM, sometimes also called Integrated Water Resources Management [IWRM]), an often place-based holistic exercise that seeks to integrate multiple perspectives, interests, jurisdictions, government levels, and stakeholders to engage in integrated discussions relating to water. For example, the EU Water Directive and the subsequent EU Floods Directive requires water and flood planning on a basin scale, which solicits local and regional perspectives (Hall and Penning-Rowsell 2010). Canadian researchers in water governance call these approaches ‘experiments in new ways of sharing responsibilities for water-related decisions’ (Simms and de Loë 2010: iv).
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