Handbook of Rural Development
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Handbook of Rural Development

Edited by Gary Paul Green

Although most countries in the world are rapidly urbanizing, the majority of the global population – particularly the poor – continue to live in rural areas. This Handbook rejects the popular notion that urbanization should be universally encouraged and presents clear evidence of the vital importance of rural people and places, particularly in terms of environmental conservation. Expert contributors from around the world explore how global trends, state policies and grassroots movements affect contemporary rural areas in both developed and developing countries.
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Chapter 13: Land grabbing in the name of development

Elisa da Vià


In the Makeni area of central Sierra Leone, a land dispute has flared up after Addax Bioenergy, a division of the Swiss-based energy corporation Addax & Oryx Group, won a 50-year lease for around 20 000 hectares to produce ethanol for export to the European Union (EU) market. When they signed away their land with thumb prints in villages of mud huts without electricity or running water, local farmers were told that the Addax project would not affect the seasonally waterlogged ‘bolilands’ where most subsistence rice production takes place because the sugarcane was to be planted in drier areas (Akam 2010). From the outset, the firm committed to create 2000 jobs, train and support farmers with inputs and agricultural equipment, bring infrastructural development, and generate further employment opportunities for local businesses and outgrowers. Since 2008, however, Addax has employed only 50 local men to work in its sugarcane nursery, paying them the equivalent of a mere US$2.50 a day on a casual basis (Daniel and Mittal 2010). In the meantime, irrigation channels dug up by the company have drained some of the bolilands, thus damaging the rice fields, while other food crops such as cassava and wild palm trees used for cooking oil were razed when the land was leased (Akam 2010). Local pastoralists and land tenants are being displaced to make way for the sugar plantation, and the large-scale use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers for agrofuel production is threatening the groundwater and food harvests in surrounding lands (Baxter 2010).

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