Handbook on the Economics of Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity
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Handbook on the Economics of Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity

Edited by Paulo A.L.D. Nunes, Pushpam Kumar and Tom Dedeurwaerdere

In recent years, there has been a marked proliferation in the literature on economic approaches to ecosystem management, which has created a subsequent need for real understanding of the scope and the limits of the economic approaches to ecosystems and biodiversity. Within this Handbook, carefully commissioned original contributions from acknowledged experts in the field address the new concepts and their applications, identify knowledge gaps and provide authoritative recommendations.
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Chapter 27: Governance is critical to managing coastal and marine resources: effects of marine management areas

Giselle Samonte, Daniel Suman, Juan Maté, Diego Quiroga, Carlos Mena and Adele Catzim-Sanchez


Worldwide, coral reefs, mangroves, seagrass beds, and other highly diverse tropical marine ecosystems are under sharp decline. Anthropogenic impacts are degrading water quality, habitat configuration and the ecological structure of entire coastal systems. Consequently, most coastal marine fisheries are under an increasing threat of collapse. This global crisis poses an unprecedented challenge not only to marine biodiversity conservation, but also to the livelihood of millions of people who depend on healthy coastal ecosystems, especially in developing countries. Globally, almost 50 percent of fisheries are at maximum capacity, while more than 25 percent have been pushed beyond sustainable limits. Industrial fishing practices have depressed populations of large predatory fish to about 10 percent of pre-industrial levels throughout the global ocean. Recent assessments show that 20 percent of the world's coral reefs have been effectively destroyed, a further 24 percent are under imminent risk of collapse, and another 26 percent are under long-term threat from human-caused pressures. Marine managed areas (MMAs) of various types are a form of resource management that regulates human activities in particular locations (area-based management strategy). There are many types and management regimes of MMAs, from multiple-use and community-managed areas to no-take reserves, but objectives generally converge at socioeconomic (e.g., fisheries, tourism) and biodiversity conservation benefits.

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