A Developing Country Perspective
Edited by Pushpam Kumar and Ibrahim Thiaw
Chapter 7: Unifying environmental and social protection: learning from PES and CCT in developing countries
Environmental conservation and poverty alleviation are the two key policy areas that continue to receive increasing attention from governments, donors and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in the developing world. The complex links between poverty and environmental degradation continue to be the focus of much research and debate and it is unlikely to be closed (Dasgupta 2003; Ruijs et al. 2008). However, there is increasing consensus about the policy instruments to be used to tackle both problems, albeit in a rather piecemeal approach. The current thrust is mostly on payments for ecosystem services (PES) to correct market failures that lead to excessive levels of environmental degradation (Pagiola et al. 2005; Wunder 2006, 2008; Bulte and Zilberman 2008; Engel et al. 2008; Pascual et al. 2010). On the other hand, conditional cash transfer (CCT) programmes are being implemented to correct market failures that lead to underinvestment in social protection in developing countries (Schubert 2005; Chapman 2006; Farrington and Slater 2006).
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