Edited by Conchita D’Ambrosio
Chapter 8: Social exclusion: empirical findings
This chapter reviews some of the empirical trends in social exclusion in Europe. Particular attention is paid to European Union (EU) social indicators that are meant to measure social exclusion, as they often play a central role in policy evaluation. The chapter focuses on some of these measures, namely the at-risk-of-poverty indicator, the share of jobless households, and material deprivation. The authors analyse their trends and levels, as well as their interactions and overlap (from both a cross-sectional and a longitudinal perspective. Finally, the authors investigate the link of these indicators with employment and redistribution, which are central items for policy making related to social exclusion in the EU. The review suggests that trends and levels in social exclusion were disappointingly far from the policy goals set by the EU, and have worsened as a result of the financial crisis.
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