Social Protection, Economic Growth and Social Change
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Social Protection, Economic Growth and Social Change

Goals, Issues and Trajectories in China, India, Brazil and South Africa

Edited by James Midgley and David Piachaud

This highly original and thought-provoking book examines the recent expansion of social protection in China, India, Brazil and South Africa – four countries experiencing rapid economic growth and social change.
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Chapter 16: Conclusion: experiences, issues and future possibilities

David Piachaud and James Midgley


In the preceding sections, experts on each of the four nations have discussed many different aspects of social protection. As mentioned in the introduction to this book, these countries were selected because they have all experienced rapid economic growth in recent times and have also expanded their social protection systems and, accordingly, present a good opportunity to examine the complex relationship between economic development and social protection. In addition to describing the history, features and future trajectory of social protection in their countries, the contributors have either directly or indirectly addressed this issue. The purpose of this final chapter is not to present a summary but rather to draw out some issues that are common, or not common, from all the nations to illuminate the future of social protection in these and other nations. As any painter knows, there is nothing like contrast to highlight the scene. The past, the present and the future have been perceived and discussed differently for each country. Another set of experts might have focussed on other aspects but there has been a substantial overlap of concerns and also substantial differences. Here some of these similarities and differences are discussed.

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