Handbook of International Human Resource Development
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Handbook of International Human Resource Development

Context, Processes and People

Edited by Thomas Garavan, Alma McCarthy and Ronan Carbery

This Handbook draws on a global team of distinguished Human Resource Development and IHRD scholars to provide research and practice insights on a range of contemporary IHRD issues and challenges. The Handbook reviews a number of critical contextual dimensions that: shape the IHRD goals that organisations pursue; impact the IHRD systems, policies and practices that are implemented; and influence the types of IHRD research questions that are investigated. The Handbook examines the processes or actions taken by organisations to globalise IHRD practices and discusses important people development practices that come within the scope of IHRD.
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Chapter 13: IHRD and virtual HRD

Elisabeth E. Bennett and Rochell R. McWhorter


Virtual human resource development (VHRD) is a new area of inquiry and it is integral to international trade and transnational organizations. Increasingly, VHRD enables international HRD (IHRD) as globalization advances, although the extent to which it does depends upon technology access and navigating cross-cultural issues. This chapter discusses the intersection of VHRD with IHRD, introduces technology development from an IHRD perspective, and provides implications for practice and research. It offers perspective on various levels of culture associated with different types of HRD. Interwoven through this chapter are issues of knowledge, culture, learning, technical capacity, and the goals and boundaries of IHRD. It discusses new applications of technology, including artificial intelligence and the trend towards the Internet of Things. These movements continue to transform both the public sphere and workplace and, thus, alter strategies for IHRD. Implications include moving organizations from enterprise systems to ecosystems, promoting learning agility, and addressing ethical and practical challenges in technology access and sustainability.

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