Issues, Challenges and National Policies
Edited by Khalid Bichou, Joseph S. Szyliowicz and Luca Zamparini
Chapter 15: Maritime security regulations and policies in Hong Kong: a critical review and the development of a risk-based security assessment model
The 9/11 terrorist attacks exposed the brittleness of the international transportation system, including shipping and ports. A terrorist event involving the system could lead to unprecedented disruption of global trade (Flynn, 2006) that would not only lead to human casualties but also significant economic impacts like the breakdown of supply chains and potentially global economic recessions (Greenberg et al., 2006). Being nodal points, security of ports is pivotal to ensure the smoothness and efficiency of an increasingly complex logistical supply chain (Robinson, 2002; Ng, 2007). It covers all security- and counter-terrorist-related activities, including the protection of critical infrastructures, as well as the protection and coordination of security activities when ships and ports interact. Although many studies on maritime security have been conducted (for example, Hesse, 2003; OECD, 2003; Roach, 2003; Bichou, 2004; Kumar and Vellenga, 2004; King, 2005; Greenberg et al., 2006; Zhu, 2006; Bichou et al., 2007; Yang et al., 2013), a comprehensive review of how international guidelines, notably the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS, chapter XI-2) and the International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) code promulgated by the International Maritime Organization (IMO, 2002a, 2002b), could be applied to enhance maritime security, notably the problems and possible solutions, was found wanting. Understanding such deficiency, using Hong Kong as the case study, the chapter analyses how international regulations and guidelines on maritime security, as laid down in the aforementioned IMO documents, were implemented in ports.
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