Participation and Interaction in Foresight
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Participation and Interaction in Foresight

Dialogue, Dissemination and Visions

Edited by Kristian Borch, Sandra Dingli and Michael Søgaard Jørgensen

This illuminating book combines theory and practice to analyse the experiences and impacts of foresight activities in various European countries. It includes case studies with a focus on different societal issues including national development, science and technology, and sustainable development.
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Chapter 4: Learning theory in foresight

Tamás Kristóf


The fact that learning plays a significant role in foresight processes is not new, however, theoretical-methodological description and empirical research of this topic have suffered neglect so far. In foresight, learning appears at the level of participant individuals, expert and non-expert teams, the whole foresight project and society. In the last century, the behavioural and cognitive sciences managed to develop a rich set of literature in the field of individual and team-learning, and organizational theorists elaborated the conceptual and methodological background of organizational learning. Only in recent years did the topic of learning appear in futures studies and foresight, within the framework of anticipatory action learning. Experience has proven that learning is no longer the exclusive matter of formal education, therefore emphasis is laid on informal and non-formal learning processes as well. In today’s world, learning has become more and more important to all people and all communities. Foresight is certainly not an exception. It is expected that if learning is taking place and organized successfully, then a more effective foresight might be accomplished. As a consequence, learning processes must be understood and explained in-depth. This places an emphasis on research learning within foresight.

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