Participation and Interaction in Foresight
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Participation and Interaction in Foresight

Dialogue, Dissemination and Visions

Edited by Kristian Borch, Sandra Dingli and Michael Søgaard Jørgensen

This illuminating book combines theory and practice to analyse the experiences and impacts of foresight activities in various European countries. It includes case studies with a focus on different societal issues including national development, science and technology, and sustainable development.
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Chapter 19: Foresight as governance of science, technology and society: cross-cutting conclusions

Michael Søgaard Jørgensen


The previous parts of the book have theoretically and empirically analysed foresight processes as systematic, participatory, considering alternative futures and action-oriented. However, the cases which have been discussed show that knowledge about the impacts of foresight processes and the mechanisms behind these impacts is rather limited. This final chapter provides a cross-cutting discussion of the analyses in the previous chapters within the following themes: societal concerns behind foresight; aspects, aspects of participation, dialogue, learning and negotiation; and results from foresight activities. This discussion is followed by development of some recommendations for future foresight processes by analysing foresight experiences from a governance perspective, understood as how authority is executed in a society. The concept of governance is here understood as modes of authority where governmental actors rely upon nongovernmental actors (businesses, civil society, researchers, and so on) in the formulation and implementation of public policy (Smith et al., 2005).

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