Chapter 11: Managing to work longer
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The factors driving decisions to work longer or leave early are complex. These factors affect people in different life situations in a variety of ways, which result in their staying in paid work or exiting in some form of transition to retirement. The factors can be extrinsic or intrinsic, or a combination of both. Bio-psychosocial (BPS) models (Borrel-Carrió et al., 2004) have been utilized to explain some of the dynamics impacting on the working and non-working decision. The models encapsulate three main determinants of functional ability and orientation to work: biological, psychological and social factors. It is the interplay of these three factors that largely determines the perceived work and health potential of the older worker. Biological factors include: physical, physiological phenomena that impact on status. Psychological factors include the cognitive, emotional and personality patterns that impact on status.

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Edited by Philip Taylor
Monograph Book