New Constellations in European Research and Higher Education Governance
Edited by Meng-Hsuan Chou and Åse Gornitzka
Chapter 3: Translating the 'European Charter for Researchers and the Code of Conduct for the Recruitment of Researchers' in national arenas: Norway vs Spain
Researcher mobility is a central pillar of the European Research Area (ERA) and this chapter examines the main instrument formally adopted for its promotion: the 'European Charter for Researchers and the Code of Conduct for the Recruitment of Researchers' (European Commission 2005). The Charter and the Code (CC), as the name implies, is a set of 40 principles outlining the rights, duties and obligations of researchers, their employers and funders. In essence, the CC lays the foundation on which a more detailed human resource (HR) policy for researchers could be elaborated. The general idea is that, with the CC acting as a baseline for a HR policy, Europe would become a more attractive destination for research. The CC is a non-binding instrument. The Commission of the European Union (EU) adopted it in 2005 and, while some 170 institutions representing 19 countries endorsed it by 2006, its implementation was considered 'slow' (European Commission 2007, p. 4). According to an external evaluation carried out for the European Commission, a fundamental problem concerned a general lack of awareness of the CC amongst researchers even within those institutions that formally endorsed it (European Commission 2009, p. 25). This led the European Commission to launch the 'Human Resource Strategy for Researchers' (HRS4R) in 2008 to assist institutions in the implementation of the CC at the national and institutional levels.
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