Linkages at International, National and Local Levels
Edited by Frank Maes, An Cliquet, Willemien du Plessis and Heather McLeod-Kilmurray
Chapter 4: Impacts of climate change, biodiversity loss and population on sustainable development in Ethiopia
Ethiopia is one of the oldest states in the world with a variety of physical and geographical environments. These include, but not limited to: one of the lowest points on the planet, the Dallol Depression, a place believed to be the origin of mankind according to archaeological excavations; one of the highest mountain peaks in Africa, Ras Dashen; several rivers, including one of the longest rivers in the world (the Nile); and it is one of the world’s eight crop plant diversity centres.1 Moreover, the country is known for its diverse climate system. Ethiopia’s climate includes about ten climate types, for example: the hot arid, hot semi-arid, tropical with distinct dry winter, tropical monsoon rainy with short dry winters, warm temperate rainy with dry winter, and warm temperate rainy without distinct dry seasons.2 There are millions of acres of arable land and a variety of flora and fauna in different parts of the country. The irregular rain pattern and rain failure are the causes that lead to drought and starvation in the country, while wanton destruction of the forest cover and unsustainable land use are the additional contributory factors to the problems of poverty in the country.
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