The aim of this chapter is to elaborate on the notion of ‘cyber operations’ against the generic manner in which they are used by popular media as well as by academics. This chapter differentiates between actors and motives, covering operations conducted by both state and non-state entities. Special attention is paid to governmental cyber operations that are characterized by distinct roles and paradigms: governance, protection, law enforcement, intelligence and military operations. Despite similarities regarding means and methods used in various cyber operations, the critical test is the purpose of those launching such operations. For governmental actors, the purposes are vested in the aforementioned paradigms.
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