Edited by Michikazu Kojima and Etsuyo Michida
Chapter 9: Lessons learned from illegal transboundary movement of hazardous waste in Asia
Various forms of hazardous waste have been exported from developed countries to developing countries, causing environmental pollution. In the 1980s, hazardous waste imported into developing countries was often dumped improperly and resulted in health hazards. Recycling of hazardous waste, such as lead-acid batteries, has also caused pollution in importing countries. To solve these problems, the Basel Convention was established in 1989 and came into effect in 1992 after dozens of countries ratified it. Accordingly, prior notice and consent is required to export hazardous waste to other countries before shipment commences. As of April 2012, the number of ratifying parties had reached 178. Member countries have introduced domestic regulations in line with the Basel Convention. In addition, some countries have started regulating the international trade of non-hazardous recyclable waste to prevent pollution problems from the process of recycling (see Chapters 1, 3, 4, and 5, and Kojima (ed.) 2005).
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