The aim of this chapter is to focus on the progressive aspects of the relationship between
science and innovation. One of the main aims in this chapter is to position the fields of science
and innovation in relationship with the actors of both scenes. Are there individuals, organizations
and institutions specialized in the respective fields, with a division of labor leading to
professional monopolies? Must we introduce other elements in the creative ecosystems (communities,
intermediaries, policy settings, etc.)? One striking evolution in the long run is the
professionalization of research, along with the increasing size of equipment in certain sectors. The
logical conclusion could be that science is now extremely specialized and characterized by an
extensive division of labor. The paradox is that, in parallel, we observe a growing number and
variety of partners contributing to applied knowledge creation in the model of open innovation, and
large interdisciplinary teams that are necessary to achieve breakthroughs in basic science.
Scientist are trained and selected like high-level athletes, exchanged on academic markets, and
evaluated according to criteria of “excellence” in the respective discipline, but they can no more
be considered as having the monopoly of the discovery. We observe a democratization of the ideas as
Edmund Phelps says.
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